Before my arrival in Ireland next week, I decided to get a refresher in the history of Ireland. Along the same lines, I watched a few films. Check out the film list here.
Here’s a timeline overview of the “Emerald Isle!”
8000 B.C. First inhabitants in Ireland. After the last Ice Age, settlers arrived by crossing a land bridge from England.
500 B.C. -150 B.C. Celtic Tribes arrived
100 B.C. Gaels arrived
300 A.D. Christianity arrived in Ireland. St. Patrick began converting Irish Gaelic Kings to Christianity. Religious manuscripts were written by Celtic monks. The most famous of these was the Book of Kells.
920 Vikings invaded Ireland.
999 Brian Boru defeated the Vikings
1166 Reign of Rory O’Connor, the last native High King of Ireland
1167 Invaders from Normandy brought English rule to Ireland.
1388 The Statutes of Kilkenny were passed, forbidding Irish/English intermarriages and prevented the use of the Irish language, customs, and laws.
1649 Oliver Cromwell commanded English forces to destroy castles and churches, forcing Protestantism on the Irish
1688 King James II, the last Catholic king of England, was exiled to France, and England passed laws limiting the rights and freedoms of Catholics in Ireland
1828 Daniel O’Connell, a Catholic, was elected into the British House of Commons, but refused to take the Oath of Supremacy. This led to the Emancipation Act which finally allowed him to take his seat in 1830.
1845-1849 Potato Famine. People focused on survival rather than politics
1914 World War I. People focused on war efforts, forcing the Catholic/Protestant issues to take a back seat.
1916 “Easter Rising.” Catholic Irishmen marched into Dublin and took over several important government buildings and wrote a declaration of independence. They were arrested by English Troops. This jump started the now popular independence movement.
1921 Michael Collins negotiated a peace treaty with England. The treaty gave independence to 26 out of 32 counties in Ireland, leaving out Northern Ireland.
1949 The Republic of Ireland was declared.
1951-62 The IRA intensified their campaign in Northern Ireland in order to overthrow British rule and unify Ireland.
1969 British Troops were sent to Derry, Northern Ireland.
1972 The Bloody Sunday massacre in Derry, Northern Ireland. British soldiers shot 26 unarmed Irish protesters.
1994 The IRA declared a cease fire.
1998 An initial peace plan, the “Good Friday Agreement,” was accepted by all parties.